This paper reviews latest developments of substructures for offshore wid turbines focusing on investigations and applications of hybrid foundations. Model tests and numerical analyses were used to simulate the loading of hybrid piles in sand. The results of pile-soil interaction were investigated to confirm the changes in soil stiffness around the hybrid monopile head. The mechanism and factors affecting the change in lateral stiffness of the hybrid foundation were explained by analysing p–y curves for M+H loading conditions in sand. Based on this research, a new shape of p-y curves for hybrid monopiles was established and a method for determining key parameters was proposed. The effectiveness of new p–y curves was verified by comparing back-calculated results with those from numerical simulations. The conducted tests confirmed that the hybrid monopile displacement is 30–50 % lower when compared to a standard monopile with similar dimensions. The gained experiences can be useful for designers and researchers to enhance the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines.
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