Research on the methods of analyzing geodetic monitoring data (manual and automatic) and sensor data is vital for assessing the technical condition and safety of facilities, particularly when utilizing new measurement technologies. Emerging technologies for obtaining data on the changes in the surface of objects employ laser scanning techniques (such as LiDAR, Light Detection, and Ranging) from various heights: terrestrial, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, drones), and satellites using sensors that record geospatial and multispectral data. This article introduces an algorithm to determine geometric change trends using terrestrial laser scanning data for both concrete and earth surfaces. In the consecutive steps of the algorithm, normal vectors were utilized to analyze changes, calculate local surface deflection angles, and determine object alterations. These normal vectors were derived by fitting local planes to the point cloud using the least squares method. In most applications, surface strain and deformation analyses based on laser scanning point clouds primarily involve direct comparisons using the Cloud to Cloud (C2C) method, resulting in complex, difficult-to-interpret deformation maps. In contrast, preliminary trend analysis using local normal vectors allows for rapid threat detection. This approach significantly reduces calculations, with detailed point cloud interpretation commencing only after detecting a change on the object indicated by normal vectors in the form of an increasing deflection trend. Referred to as the cluster algorithm by the authors of this paper, this method can be applied to monitor both concrete and earth objects, with examples of analyses for different object types presented in the article.
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