Crumb rubber geopolymer mortar at elevated temperature exposure
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Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology and Informatics, University Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering – Rabigh Branch, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Department of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-200, Czestochowa, Poland
Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 41 D. Mangeron St., 700050 Iasi, Romania
Submission date: 2021-09-20
Final revision date: 2022-03-04
Acceptance date: 2022-03-22
Publication date: 2022-09-30
Archives of Civil Engineering 2022;68(3):97-105
Low calcium fly ash is used as the main material in the mixture and the crumb rubber was used in replacing fine aggregates in geopolymer mortar. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) which were high alkaline solution were incorporated as the alkaline solution. The fly ash reacted with the alkaline solution forming alumino-silicate gel that binds the aggregate to produce a geopolymer mortar. The loading of crumb rubber in the fly ash based geopolymer mortar was set at 0% (CRGM-0), 5% (CRGM-5), 10% (CRGM-10), 15% (CRGM-15), and 20% (CRGM-20), respectively. NaOH solution (12M) and Na2SiO3 solution ratio is set constant at 2.5 for all geopolymer mixture and the fly ash to alkali activator ratio was kept at 2.0. The CRGM at 28 days of curing time was exposed to elevated temperature at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C. The weight loss of the CRGM increases with increasing temperature at all elevated temperatures. However, the density and compressive strength of CRGM decrease with an increase of crumb rubber loading for all elevated temperature exposure. The compressive strength of CRGM reduced due to the fact that rubber decomposes between 200°C and 600°C thereby creating voids. CRGM-15 and CRGM-20 showed cracks developed with rough surface at 800°C. Image obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that, the CRGM changed significantly due to the decomposition of crumb rubber and evaporation of the free water at 400°C, 600°C and 800°C.
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