Characteristics of 13th-century mortars from the tower at Lublin Castle
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Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Conservation and Built Heritage, Nadbystrzycka St. 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2022-07-13
Final revision date: 2022-12-13
Acceptance date: 2022-12-16
Publication date: 2023-06-30
Archives of Civil Engineering 2023;2(2):83-95
The tower at Lublin Castle, known as the donjon, is the only monument of Romanesque art on the eastern side of the Vistula River. The cylindrical, brick building is part of the Lublin Castle complex. During contemporary restoration work, the 13th-century walls were uncovered, making it possible to retrieve the original materials. The article presents the mineralogical, chemical and granulometric characteristics. The analytical methodology included: qualitative mineralogical analysis of the whole sample by X-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological studies with elemental evaluation and microanalysis of the binder by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Residue determination of hydrochloric acid-insoluble parts and their granulometric analysis were performed. This methodology enabled to determine the composition of the mortars. It was found that the tested mortars have a similar mineralogical structure, but slightly differ in the proportion of individual components, primarily aggregate fractions. The samples consist mainly of quartz, calcite, and silicates. Moreover, the lime binder of the mortars was shown to be microcrystalline in nature. The aggregate used in historical mortars predominantly consisted of quartz sand and minerals of the feldspar and silicate group. The condition of the mortars requires conservation interventions. The performed characterization of the historic mortars was important for designing compatible restoration mortars.
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