Application of Weathered Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as a Supplementary Cementitious Material in Concrete
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Submission date: 2020-06-01
Final revision date: 2020-07-29
Acceptance date: 2020-07-30
Publication date: 2020-12-11
Archives of Civil Engineering 2020;66(4):381-398
The physical and chemical properties of cements with slag originated from the storage yards of different age, added as a supplementary cementing material are highlighted. The materials after 20-year storage, the crushed slag after approximately 2-year storage and the new slag from the ongoing production were compared. The materials supplied by the same metallurgical plant were characterized. The blended cements were produced by Portland cement clinker grinding with gypsum and slags added as 5 to 50% of binder mass. The standard properties of cements were examined, as well as some experiments related to the kinetics of hydration and hydration products were carried out. The addition of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) stored for a long time, as a component of cement, affects the properties of material in such a way that the early compressive strength is not specially altered but at longer maturing the strength decreases generally with the storage time and percentage of additive. This is related to the reduction of the vitreous component, as well as to the presence of weathered material of altered activity. At the additive content up to 50% the binder complying with the requirements of the European standards for CEM III/A or CEM II/(A,B)-S common cements can be produced. The cements with the old slag meet the requirements of EN 197-1 relating at least to the class 32,5. The role of calcium carbonate, being the product resulting from the slag weathering process, acting as a grindability and setting/hardening modifying agent, should be underlined.
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